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ИС и политика в области конкуренции

ߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ () ٧ӧݧ֧ ֧ҧڧ֧ݧ ӧҧڧѧ ާ֧اէ ܧߧܧڧڧާ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ݧާ ӧѧѧާ ݧԧѧާ, ܧ ߧ էѧ. ާ ӧ֧ ڧէ ҧӧ֧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧ߧ, ܧѧܧ ߧ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ѧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧѧڧ ާ֧اէ ҧ ߧ֧ާѧ֧ڧѧݧߧ ѧܧڧӧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧڧ ֧էڧڧ.

֧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧ ѧӧڧܧ ݧ ѧݧڧ ҧ ٧ѧާѧߧڧ ܧݧڧ֧ߧ ֧ ܧڧӧѧߧڧ ӧѧ ݧ ڧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ. ݧ֧էߧڧ ֧ݧ ҧ ӧ ڧާݧ էݧ ӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧߧڧ էܧڧ ڧݧ էݧ ֧էݧا֧ߧڧ ߧӧ ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ ݧ. ԧ ڧԧѧݧ ҧ ҧ֧ӧ. էߧѧܧ ӧݧߧ֧ ܧѧۧߧ ӧѧاߧ ߧܧڧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ ԧէ, ܧԧէ ߧ ѧߧ֧ էݧڧߧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ.

(: iStockphoto.com/PETESALOUTOS)

ܧӧܧ ާ֧اէ ݧڧڧܧ ҧݧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ާا֧ ҧߧ ݧ֧էڧާ ܧާݧ֧ܧѧާ ӧ:

ݧڧܧ ާߧԧ : ԧէ ݧڧܧ ѧߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ڧܧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧӧ ߧ ߧ֧ѧ٧ݧڧѧڧ֧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ (ܧѧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ѧ֧ߧ ߧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ, ܧ ߧ ӧ֧ѧ ֧ҧӧѧߧڧ, ҧ ҧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧާ, ڧݧ ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧ, ߧ֧ѧ٧ݧڧڧާ ݧ), ߧ ӧݧ֧ ڧӧܧߧܧ֧ߧߧ.

ݧڧܧ ާѧݧ : ԧէ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ֧է ٧ѧڧ ѧ ߧ֧ ڧݧ ܧԧէ ߧ ާا֧ ҧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧ ѧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧ٧ݧڧѧڧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧ, ӧݧ֧ ڧާڧѧڧ.

ѧӧڧݧߧѧ է٧ : ӧ֧ ߧ ҧӧ֧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ, էߧѧܧ ѧӧڧݧߧѧ է٧ (ߧ ݧڧܧ ާߧԧ, ߧ ݧڧܧ ާѧݧ) ާا֧ ӧ٧ӧѧ ާ֧ߧڧ , ܧѧѧ֧ ѧӧ ֧ҧڧ֧ݧ ߧ ӧҧէߧ ӧҧ. ڧէڧ ԧէ, ܧԧէ ѧӧѧާ ٧ݧ֧ҧݧ ڧݧ ܧԧէ ߧ ڧݧ٧ ӧ֧ܧ ֧ݧ ٧ѧܧߧ. ا֧ ѧܧا ݧڧ, ѧӧڧݧߧѧ է٧ ާا֧ ѧڧڧӧѧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧާ ҧ֧ݧӧѧާ, ܧ է֧ݧѧ ݧاߧ, ߧ֧ӧ٧ާاߧ ڧݧ ߧ֧էҧߧ էݧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ڧܧѧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧߧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ֧ҧڧ֧ݧ֧. ѧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ҧӧѧ֧ ԧէ, ܧԧէ ٧ѧѧ֧ߧӧѧߧߧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ѧߧӧ ާݧ֧ߧߧާ ѧߧէѧѧާ ڧݧ ܧԧէ ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ݧѧ ڧѧߧڧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ڧ էݧ ٧էӧ ҧݧѧԧߧڧ ݧէ֧ اڧӧߧ. ֧ӧ ݧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧѧ ߧ֧ݧ٧ ٧էѧӧѧ ѧݧ֧ߧѧڧӧߧ, ߧ֧اڧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ. ӧ ݧѧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ڧѧߧڧ ѧէ ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ ا էѧߧߧ ߧѧߧڧ ߧ֧ߧاߧ ڧѧݧߧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ѧӧէѧߧߧ ֧.

٧ܧѧߧڧ

ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ҧ٧

  • ѧ֧ߧ ?ާ֧ݧܧڧ ڧԧܧ? ߧ ߧܧ ާѧߧ (ߧӧѧ 2015 .) PDF, ѧ֧ߧ  ?ާ֧ݧܧڧ ڧԧܧ? ߧ ߧܧ ާѧߧ
  • ҧ٧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧӧӧ ѧܧڧܧ ҧݧѧ ѧ٧ڧݧܧԧ ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧԧ ӧ֧ ٧ѧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧ֧֧ (է֧ܧѧҧ 2014 .) PDF, ҧ٧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧӧӧ ѧܧڧܧ  ҧݧѧ  ѧ٧ڧݧܧԧ ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧԧ ӧ֧  ٧ѧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ڧߧ֧֧
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ܧѧѧ֧֧ ѧ֧ߧߧ ݧ ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ݧڧڧܧ: ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧߧѧݧڧ (ާѧ 2014 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ܧѧѧ֧֧ ѧ֧ߧߧ ݧ  ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ݧڧڧܧ:  ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧߧѧݧڧ
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ӧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ, ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ (է֧ܧѧҧ 2013 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ  ӧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ, ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ  ѧ٧ӧڧڧ
  • ߧѧݧڧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧ ֧֧էѧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ݧڧڧܧ (է֧ܧѧҧ 2013 .) PDF, ߧѧݧڧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧ  ֧֧էѧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ  ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ݧڧڧܧ
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧܧ ܧѧ٧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ ߧ ѧӧ (ѧӧԧ 2013 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧܧ ܧѧ٧  ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ ߧ ѧӧ
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ܧѧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧӧѧߧڧ ѧ ? (ѧӧԧ 2013 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ܧѧ  ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧӧѧߧڧ ѧ ?
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ݧڧߧڧ ѧܧڧܧ ڧҧ֧֧ߧڧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧ֧ߧ ߧ ֧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ާѧߧ? (ӧ֧ߧ ܧ ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧߧ 2013 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ  ߧ ֧ާ ?ݧڧߧڧ ѧܧڧܧ ڧҧ֧֧ߧڧ  ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧ֧ߧ ߧ ֧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ާѧߧ?
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ () ާѧ, էӧѧڧ ӧҧէ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ: ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ҧߧ ֧? (ѧ֧ݧ 2012 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ()  ާѧ, էӧѧڧ ӧҧէ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ: ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ҧߧ ֧?
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ڧߧէڧ֧ݧߧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ, ӧէѧӧѧ֧ާ ԧէѧӧѧ-ݧ֧ߧѧ ֧ݧ ҧҧ ѧߧڧܧߧܧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ѧ ? (4 ܧҧ 2011 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ڧߧէڧ֧ݧߧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ, ӧէѧӧѧ֧ާ  ԧէѧӧѧ-ݧ֧ߧѧ   ֧ݧ ҧҧ  ѧߧڧܧߧܧ֧ߧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ѧ ?
  • ҧ٧ ߧ ֧ާ ?֧ էݧ ѧާ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ݧڧڧܧ ҧݧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧާ ѧߧڧ٧ڧߧԧ? (23 ڧߧ 2011 .) PDF, ҧ٧ ߧ ֧ާ ?֧ էݧ ѧާ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ݧڧڧܧ  ҧݧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ  ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧާ  ѧߧڧ٧ڧߧԧ?
  • ?ߧѧݧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ/ѧӧӧ ݧڧ֧ѧ ݧ ѧ ߧ ܧѧ ҧѧ֧ էݧ ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧ? (16 ߧӧѧ 2012 .) PDF, ?ߧѧݧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ/ѧӧӧ ݧڧ֧ѧ  ݧ ѧ ߧ  ܧѧ ҧѧ֧ էݧ ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧ?
  • ?٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ֧اէ֧ߧڧ ֧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧڧާߧݧߧԧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ: ֧٧ާ ӧ֧, ݧ֧ߧߧ ԧէѧ-ݧ֧ߧ? (16 ڧߧ 2011 .) PDF, ?٧ѧڧާէ֧ۧӧڧ ֧اէ֧ߧڧ  ֧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ  ѧߧڧާߧݧߧԧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ: ֧٧ާ ӧ֧, ݧ֧ߧߧ  ԧէѧ-ݧ֧ߧ?
  • ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ڧ֧ѧߧڧ֧ ѧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧ? (17 ѧ֧ݧ 2012 .) PDF, ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ߧ ֧ާ ?ӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ڧ֧ѧߧڧ֧ ѧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ  ܧߧܧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧ?
  • ߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէݧߧڧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧڧܧ: ӧ֧ܧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ٧ѧ֧ҧӧѧߧߧ ާէ֧ݧ ֧էڧߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ (2007 .) PDF, ߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ  ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ  ܧѧ֧ӧ ӧ٧ѧڧާէݧߧڧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧڧܧ: ӧ֧ܧ  ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ֧ ٧ѧ֧ҧӧѧߧߧ ާէ֧ݧ ֧էڧߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ

֧ڧڧ

ѧڧߧѧݧߧ ֧ާڧߧѧ

ԧѧߧڧ٧ էݧ ԧݧҧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧڧާѧߧڧ ӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ էݧ է֧ۧӧڧ էڧѧݧԧ ާ֧اէ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ֧ߧߧާ ֧اէ֧ߧڧާ.

֧اէߧѧէߧ ӧ֧ ?٧ ܧԧݧ ݧ?

٧էѧ ӧ٧ާاߧ էݧ էڧѧݧԧ ާ֧اէ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ӧ֧էާӧѧާ ԧѧߧѧާ ӧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ էߧ ا ֧ԧڧߧ ڧݧ էߧ ا ԧ ѧ.

էߧڧ֧ӧ

ѧڧߧѧݧߧ ԧѧߧ ӧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ () ߧ֧էѧӧߧ էڧѧݧ ާ֧ާѧߧէާ ӧ٧ѧڧާߧڧާѧߧڧ () ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧԧ էߧڧ֧ӧ ҧާ֧ߧ ڧߧާѧڧ֧.

ҧاէ֧ߧڧ, ڧӧ֧էڧ էڧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧ , ӧѧاߧ էݧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ԧ, ҧ , էԧڧ ԧѧߧ ߧڧާѧݧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ ڧܧ, ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧڧ ԧէ, ܧԧէ ڧާ֧֧ ݧڧܧ ާߧԧ ڧݧ ݧڧܧ ާѧݧ . ѧڧާ֧, ӧ ާߧԧڧ ѧߧѧ ѧߧէѧ ҧݧѧ ѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ ѧݧѧާ֧ߧѧާ, էߧѧܧ ԧѧߧ ߧ֧ڧ٧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧߧ ڧܧ էڧܧ֧ڧߧߧ ѧӧ ֧ߧܧ ѧߧҧߧ. ާ ԧ, ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ ҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ѧߧڧ֧ӧܧԧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ, ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ԧѧߧ ӧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ѧ ѧݧܧڧӧѧ ӧѧާ, ߧڧާڧ .

֧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧԧ էߧڧ֧ӧ, ҧڧӧѧߧߧѧ ާ֧اէ ڧާ ԧѧߧѧާ, ާا֧ ӧѧӧѧ:

  • ҧާ֧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ڧߧާѧڧ֧ ٧ߧѧߧڧާ ާ֧اէ ӧ֧ӧڧާ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧާ ԧѧߧѧާ;
  • ܧߧݧѧڧߧߧ ݧԧ C էݧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧էߧ ֧اڧާ, ܧӧէڧ ڧߧڧ ѧߧէѧ ӧާ֧ߧ ѧާ֧ߧڧ ݧڧߧڧ ܧާѧߧڧ ڧݧ ڧӧܧߧܧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧڧܧ, ܧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ;
  • ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ C ӧ٧ѧڧާߧ֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧڧ֧ӧܧڧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ;
  • էԧӧܧ ݧէܧڧ ֧ ڧ էߧڧ էԧڧ ԧѧߧ ӧѧ ѧߧڧާߧݧߧ ݧڧڧܧ, ܧ ڧѧ ѧܧѧݧߧާ;
  • ѧԧѧߧէ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧާѧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧէѧ ڧߧڧ ӧҧէߧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ٧ѧڧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ߧܧڧ ڧ ԧѧߧ ֧է ֧ҧڧ֧ݧ֧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ڧ ݧԧѧާ;
  • ֧ܧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ާ ߧާѧڧӧߧ ݧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧߧѧݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ, ܧ ڧӧէ, ѧާܧѧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧ, ܧާݧ֧ܧߧ ާ֧ѧ ֧ԧݧڧӧѧߧڧ է֧.

ާا֧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ӧ֧էާӧѧ ڧ ԧէѧ-ݧ֧ߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ѧܧڧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧ.

ݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧ֧ էҧߧ ڧߧާѧڧ ӧاڧ֧ ߧѧާ.

ߧ֧ߧڧ ݧܧ

  • (ӧܧݧѧ֧ ݧܧ ߧ ӧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ԧѧߧ ӧѧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ӧݧ ݧ֧ߧѧާ ֧)
  • ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧԧ էߧڧ֧ӧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ () -
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