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ӧܧ ѧӧ

ѧܧ ѧӧܧ ѧӧ?

ӧܧ ѧӧ C ڧէڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ާڧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާ էݧ ڧѧߧڧ ѧ, ܧާ ҧݧѧէѧ ѧӧ ߧ ӧ ݧڧ֧ѧߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ӧܧ ѧӧ ѧѧߧ֧ ߧ ڧܧڧ ܧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ: ܧߧڧԧ, ާ٧ܧѧݧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ҧѧ٧ڧ֧ݧߧ ڧܧӧ, ܧݧ ܧڧߧڧݧާ, ܧާ֧ߧ ԧѧާާ, ҧѧ٧ էѧߧߧ, ֧ܧݧѧާ, ܧѧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ا.

ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ӧѧӧѧ֧ާ ѧӧܧڧ ѧӧ, ӧܧݧѧ, ާڧާ ֧ԧ:

  • ݧڧ֧ѧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ާѧߧ, ڧ, ֧, ѧӧߧ ڧ٧էѧߧڧ, ԧѧ٧֧ ܧާ֧ߧ ԧѧާާ; ҧѧ٧ էѧߧߧ;
  • ڧݧާ, ާ٧ܧѧݧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ֧ԧѧڧ;
  • էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ڧߧܧ, ܧѧڧߧ, ԧѧڧ ܧݧ;
  • ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ا֧ߧڧ;
  • ֧ܧݧѧާߧ ҧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ܧѧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ا.

ӧܧ-ѧӧӧѧ ѧߧ ѧѧߧ֧ ߧ ާ ӧѧا֧ߧڧ, ߧ ߧ ڧէ֧, ֧, ާ֧է ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧ ާѧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧߧ֧ڧ ܧѧ ѧܧӧ. ӧܧ ѧӧ ާا֧ ѧѧߧ C ڧݧ ߧ ѧѧߧ C ߧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ, ݧ٧ߧԧ ڧݧ ݧԧڧ, ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ԧ, է֧اѧ ݧ ߧ էѧߧ ֧֧ߧ ѧӧܧԧ ӧ֧ӧ. ҧݧڧߧӧ ݧѧ֧ ѧӧܧ ѧӧ ߧ ѧߧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧ.

ѧާܧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ֧ӧ֧ էӧ ڧ ѧ: ڧާ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧ ٧ӧݧ ѧӧҧݧѧէѧ֧ݧ ݧѧ ڧߧѧߧӧ ӧ٧ߧѧԧѧاէ֧ߧڧ ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ԧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ էԧڧާ ݧڧѧާ; ߧ֧ڧާ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧ, ֧ ѧӧ ֧֧ߧէӧѧ ߧ ѧӧӧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧӧ ӧ٧ѧاѧ ڧ ӧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ާԧ ӧ֧էڧ ֧ѧڧ ѧӧ. ݧڧߧӧ ٧ѧܧߧ ѧӧܧ ѧӧ ԧݧѧ, ѧӧ ڧݧ ѧӧҧݧѧէѧ֧ݧ ڧާ֧֧ ѧӧ ѧ٧֧ѧ ڧݧ ߧ էܧѧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ҧݧѧէѧ֧ݧ ѧ ߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧާ֧֧ ѧӧ ٧ѧ֧ѧ ڧݧ ѧ٧֧ѧ:

  • ֧ԧ ӧڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ާѧ, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ֧ѧߧ ڧ٧էѧߧڧ ڧݧ ٧ӧܧ٧ѧڧ;
  • ֧ԧ ҧݧڧߧ ڧݧߧ֧ߧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧ ӧڧէ ֧ ڧݧ ާ٧ܧѧݧߧԧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ;
  • ֧ԧ ٧ѧڧ (?ڧܧѧڧ?), ߧѧڧާ֧ ާ ܧާѧܧ-էڧܧ ڧݧ ڧӧ ӧڧէ֧էڧܧ;
  • ֧ԧ ֧֧էѧ ڧ, ѧէڧ, ܧѧҧ֧ݧ ڧݧ ֧֧ ߧڧ;
  • ֧ԧ ֧֧ӧ ߧ էԧڧ ٧ܧ;
  • ֧ԧ ֧֧ѧҧܧ, ߧѧڧާ֧ ֧֧է֧ݧܧ ާѧߧ ֧ߧѧڧ էݧ ڧݧާ.

ԧݧѧߧ ֧ߧܧ ܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ, ѧߧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ѧӧާѧڧ֧ܧ ҧ֧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ֧ԧڧѧڧ ڧݧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧڧ էԧڧ ާѧݧߧ֧. էߧѧܧ ߧ֧ܧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ӧ֧էާӧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ڧݧ ٧ѧܧߧ ҧݧѧ ֧էާѧڧӧѧ ֧ԧڧѧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ާا֧ ҧݧ֧ԧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ֧ ӧݧѧէ֧ݧ ڧݧ ѧӧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ڧߧѧߧӧާ է֧ݧܧѧާ, էѧا֧, ܧ ڧݧ ֧֧էѧ֧ ѧ.

֧ާ ӧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ѧӧܧڧ ѧӧ

ӧܧ ѧӧ ӧݧ֧ ߧ֧֧ާݧ֧ާ ѧ ߧѧ֧ ӧ֧էߧ֧ӧߧ اڧ٧ߧ. ڧѧ֧ ݧ ӧ ܧߧڧԧ, ާڧ ڧݧ, ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ ާ٧ܧ ڧݧ ԧѧڧ֧ C ӧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧ ߧߧ. ާڧ ֧ާ ӧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ѧӧܧڧ ѧӧ.

(: iStock.com)

ڧէ֧ڧԧ

٧էѧߧڧ ӧڧէ֧ڧԧ ާԧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ѧէڧӧڧ٧ѧݧߧ, էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧާާߧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ, է֧ݧѧ֧ էѧߧߧ ѧݧ ݧاߧ ڧߧ֧֧ߧ ֧էާ֧ էݧ ڧ٧֧ߧڧ ӧ ѧӧܧ-ѧӧӧ ѧߧ.

(: Waag Society)

է֧ ڧ٧էѧ֧ݧܧԧ է֧ݧ

٧էѧ֧ݧ ا֧ۧ ֧ۧ (Jason Epstein) է֧ݧڧ ӧڧ ӧڧէ֧ߧڧ֧ ҧէ֧ԧ ڧ٧էѧ֧ݧܧԧ է֧ݧ ݧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ.

Louvre museum
(: Victor R. Ruiz)

ӧܧ ѧӧ ާ٧֧

֧֧ݧߧ ާ٧֧֧ ѧߧ֧ߧڧ, ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧڧ է ާ٧֧ۧߧ  ߧէѧ ܧݧݧ֧ܧڧ ӧ٧ѧߧ է ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ӧ ֧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ.

ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ էԧӧ ҧݧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ

ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ ҧݧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧ ߧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ҧѧݧѧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ ٧էѧ֧ݧ֧ ܧߧ֧ߧ ڧܧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧ֧ܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ާѧܧڧާѧݧߧ ڧܧԧ է ѧӧܧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ӧݧߧ֧ ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧ ߧܧڧ է ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ էԧӧ ҧݧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ާ֧اߧ ѧ.

WIPO Lex C ٧ѧܧߧ էԧӧ ҧݧѧ ӧѧ ܧ

ѧ٧ էѧߧߧ WIPO Lex ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ҧ ӧ֧ҧ֧ާݧڧ ڧߧާ֧ߧ ڧܧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ٧ѧܧߧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ էԧӧ ҧݧѧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ.

ߧߧ ܧާڧ֧ ()

ߧߧ ܧާڧ֧ ѧӧܧާ ѧӧ ާ֧اߧ ѧӧѧ () ӧݧ֧ ާ, ѧާܧѧ ܧԧ ԧէѧӧ-ݧ֧ߧ ߧѧҧݧէѧ֧ݧ ӧ֧ѧ էݧ ҧاէ֧ߧڧ, ѧާ֧ߧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ, ܧѧѧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ҧѧݧѧߧڧӧѧߧߧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ-ѧӧӧ ҧѧ٧ ѧӧܧާ ѧӧ ֧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧڧ ֧ҧߧ֧ ҧ֧ӧ.

ѧ֧էѧߧڧ էܧާ֧ߧ

2013 . ѧҧ ڧӧ֧ݧ ٧ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧѧܧ֧ܧԧ էԧӧ էݧ ҧݧ֧ԧ֧ߧڧ է ݧ֧ ݧڧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧާ ٧֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ڧߧާ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧߧާ ҧߧާ ӧڧߧڧާѧ ֧ѧߧ ڧߧާѧڧ ҧݧڧܧӧѧߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ԧڧ ԧѧڧ ߧ ѧۧ . (: WIPO)

ߧڧڧѧڧӧ

ߧڧ էߧ ܧߧڧ (ABC) ڧ٧ӧѧ ѧڧڧ ާڧӧ ߧ ܧߧڧ էߧ ާѧѧ, ѧߧ ѧէڧܧߧڧ ܧߧڧ, ߧѧ֧ѧѧߧߧ ڧ ѧۧݧ ܧߧ ڧ, ҧ֧֧ڧ է ߧڧ ݧ֧ ݧէ ߧѧ֧ߧڧާ ٧֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ڧߧާ ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧߧާ ҧߧާ ӧڧߧڧާѧ ֧ѧߧ ڧߧާѧڧ.

ѧѧܧ֧ܧڧ էԧӧ

ѧѧܧ֧ܧڧ էԧӧ ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ֧ էէ֧اܧ ѧҧ ABC, ѧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ֧֧էѧ ܧߧڧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ާѧѧ, ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ էݧ ҧ֧ӧ ݧ֧ ݧѧҧӧڧէڧ.

֧ڧߧѧݧߧѧ է֧֧ݧߧ ӧ֧ܧڧ ѧݧ

֧ߧܧ ѧ٧ާ֧ ѧݧ֧, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ѧӧܧ ѧӧ

ڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ڧ٧ѧ֧ ӧ ѧ٧ާ֧ѧ ѧݧ֧, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ѧӧܧ ѧӧ, է֧ݧߧ ѧߧѧ. ڧӧѧ֧ ڧ ӧܧݧѧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ , ٧էѧߧڧ ѧҧڧ ާ֧ ԧӧ ҧ.

֧ߧܧ ѧ٧ާ֧ էէ ѧӧܧڧ ѧ

ѧާܧѧ ֧ا֧ԧէߧ ҧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ֧ާѧڧܧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ ѧܧڧܧ ҧݧѧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ݧ֧اڧӧѧ֧ էڧߧѧާڧܧ էէ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ӧڧէ ѧӧܧڧ ѧ (ߧѧڧާ֧, ҧ ٧ ܧڧӧѧߧڧ էݧ ݧڧߧ ߧا ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ܧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ߧڧ) ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ѧߧѧ. ڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧ ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ֧է֧ߧߧ ҧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ.

֧ߧܧ ֧ܧ ѧӧܧڧ ѧ

ڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ֧էާ֧ߧ ڧ٧ѧ֧ ӧ ݧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ާ֧اߧ ѧ է֧ݧߧ ѧݧ. ѧܧا ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ֧ܧ ֧ܧާ֧ߧէѧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧܧ ҧݧ֧ ҧڧ ݧ֧էӧڧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ҧݧէ֧ߧڧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ڧѧݧߧ, ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ ܧݧߧ ҧݧѧ.

ݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧܧڧ ѧӧ

ݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ߧѧѧ֧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ާ֧اߧ ѧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧާ, է֧ۧӧڧާ ڧߧ֧֧ѧ ڧާ֧ߧ ӧݧѧէ֧ݧ֧ ѧ.

ѧڧާ֧, ѧӧ ާا֧ էѧ ѧ٧֧֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧߧӧܧ ӧ֧ԧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ߧ ߧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ݧӧڧ ڧݧ ާ٧ܧѧߧ ާا֧ ԧݧѧڧ ߧ ٧ѧڧ ܧѧܧԧ- ڧݧߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ܧާѧܧ-էڧ. էߧѧܧ էݧ ѧӧ ڧݧ ާ٧ܧѧߧ ֧էӧ ݧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ܧߧѧܧڧӧѧ ܧѧاէ ֧ѧ ڧݧ ܧѧاէ ѧէڧѧߧڧ֧ ҧاէѧ ݧӧڧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ ߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ԧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ާ֧ߧߧ ٧է֧ ӧѧ է֧ݧ ܧݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧ ѧӧ , ѧߧ, ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ܧݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ().

WIPOCOS

  • WIPOCOS C ڧߧާѧڧߧߧ-֧ߧݧԧڧ֧ܧѧ ڧ֧ާ էݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ܧݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ, ֧էߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧѧ էݧ ҧݧ֧ԧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧܧڧ ѧӧ.