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֧ߧڧ֧ܧѧ ާ

ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ է֧ۧӧڧ ֧ݧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ߧ ݧܧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧߧѧ, ߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ ڧ֧ާ . ߧѧ է֧֧ݧߧ ҧݧѧ ڧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ֧ҧߧާ ܧߧܧ֧ߧާ ݧӧڧާ. ߧ ڧߧѧߧڧ֧ ܧѧ ڧ ߧѧ֧ԧ ֧ԧݧߧԧ ҧէا֧, ѧ ٧ ֧ ӧ٧ߧ ֧ݧ֧ӧ ߧէ.

ܧէڧߧڧ֧ ݧѧߧڧ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧߧѧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ ڧ֧ާ (ӧܧݧѧ ӧ٧ ) ֧֧ ߧӧߧ էѧ٧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ٧ѧߧڧާѧڧ֧ ѧҧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ.

(: Getty Images/Antiv3D)

֧ߧڧ֧ܧѧ ާ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧѧߧѧ

ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ ԧէѧӧѧ-ݧ֧ߧѧ ӧ ӧ֧ ֧ܧ ѧ : ѧ֧ߧ, ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ, ާݧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧, ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ѧӧܧ ѧӧ. ѧҧ ӧ֧է֧ ֧ ߧӧߧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ:

(: iStock.com/VLADGRIN)

ѧڧߧѧݧߧ ѧ֧ԧڧ

ާԧѧ֧ ѧߧѧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ, ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ѧ֧ԧڧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧߧߧ է֧֧ݧߧ, ԧݧѧڧ ڧ ѧ֧ԧڧާ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

(: iStock.com/FORGISS)

ާ ӧѧ ݧڧڧܧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧߧ է֧֧ݧߧ

٧ѧѧ ԧէѧ-ݧ֧ߧ ާ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ֧ ڧ ֧ڧڧܧ ֧ܧާ֧ߧէѧڧ էݧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ާ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧԧ ٧ѧܧߧէѧ֧ݧӧ ݧڧڧܧ ҧݧѧ .

(: Getty Images/Cecilie_Arcurs)

֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ էݧ ӧ֧էާ

֧էѧӧݧ֧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ էݧ ӧ֧էާ ӧ ӧ֧ ֧ԧڧߧѧ, ֧ ҧ ߧ ާԧݧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ѧӧӧѧ ԧݧҧѧݧߧ ڧ֧ާ .

֧ܧ

ڧا ڧӧ֧է֧ߧ ݧڧ ߧ֧ҧݧѧ ӧҧܧ ֧ӧݧ֧ާ ߧѧާ ֧ܧ. ݧ֧ ݧ ֧֧֧ߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ߧ ߧѧ֧ ѧߧڧ ڧߧ֧ߧ֧, ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ܧѧ ӧ֧ܧ էߧ ҧݧѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

(: WIPO/Berrod)

֧ҧߧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧڧ֧ ߧ

ѧާܧѧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ ܧѧէ֧ާڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ާ ԧէѧӧѧ-ݧ֧ߧѧ ٧էѧߧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ֧ҧߧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ҧݧѧ . ֧ݧ ڧ , ҧ ҧ֧֧ڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ԧէѧӧѧާ-ݧ֧ߧѧާ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ѧާէѧߧ ڧߧѧܧ ֧ҧߧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ҧݧѧ .

(: Getty Images/Sorbetto)

ݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ էߧڧ

ѧާܧѧ ԧݧѧӧѧߧߧԧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ݧ ֧ӧڧާ ֧ݧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ ڧ ߧ ݧܧ ӧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧ ֧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ էߧڧ, ߧ էէ֧اܧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ֧, ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ݧ֧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧߧާѧڧ, ӧݧ֧ۧ ѧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ էߧڧ, էݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧӧ ֧٧ݧѧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ էܧڧ.

(: iStock.com/imagesbytrista)

էߧڧ֧ӧ -

֧ݧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ ӧݧ֧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ҧ ӧѧاߧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ڧߧާѧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧ ҧާ֧ߧ ڧާ ާ֧اէ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧڧާڧ ѧߧѧާ .

(: Getty Images/mura)

ڧ٧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ

ߧӧߧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ѧާܧѧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ է֧ݧ֧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ ާ֧اէ ڧ٧ާ, ۧڧӧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ֧. ѧߧ, ڧ٧ӧѧ ܧѧ٧ѧ, ܧѧ ڧߧާ֧ߧ ѧ֧ԧڧ ާԧ ާ ҧ֧֧֧ߧڧ ۧڧӧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧ٧ާ, ѧܧا ܧߧާڧ֧ܧԧ, ڧѧݧߧԧ ܧݧߧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

֧

ѧ٧ էѧߧߧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ

ѧ٧ էѧߧߧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ ֧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ (IP-TAD) է֧اڧ ڧߧާѧڧ ӧէڧާ է֧֧ݧߧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ.

֧֧ ܧߧݧѧߧ

ѧ٧ էѧߧߧ ?֧֧ ܧߧݧѧߧ? () է֧اڧ ڧߧާѧڧ ֧ڧߧѧݧߧ ܧӧѧݧڧڧܧѧڧ ܧߧݧѧߧ, ߧѧߧڧާѧ֧ާ էݧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧ ѧҧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ֧ .

ݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ҧݧѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ

ӧէڧ ڧܧڧ ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ӧѧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧ٧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ֧. ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ٧ӧݧ ܧѧڧ ѧ٧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ܧ ѧݧܧڧӧѧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ݧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ ݧڧڧܧ ҧݧѧ , ާԧѧڧ էڧا֧ߧڧ ֧ݧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

֧ߧڧ֧ܧѧ ާ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ

ߧէڧӧڧէѧݧߧ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ ѧܧا ާԧ ݧڧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ާ ֧ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ, էѧ ѧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧӧ է ݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧݧ֧ܧڧӧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ. ڧا ܧѧ٧ѧߧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧֧ާ ߧѧާ ӧ֧ӧڧ ԧѧާާ:

(: Getty Images/baramee2554

էէ֧اܧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧ

ӧѧѧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧڧ ѧߧѧ ѧ ߧ֧էѧ֧ ֧ ڧݧ ߧ֧ҧէڧާ ֧ էէ֧اܧ էݧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ . ֧ߧ էէ֧اܧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧ () ާԧѧ ֧ڧ ҧݧ֧ާ, ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ է ӧܧܧѧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ڧߧާѧڧ ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ߧ֧ ݧԧѧ ߧ ާ֧ѧ.

(: Getty Images/yakobchuk)

ާ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ

ѧӧӧѧ ާ ܧߧݧѧڧ ާԧ ҧ ߧ֧էߧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧڧ ѧߧѧ. ԧѧާާ է֧ۧӧڧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ (IAP) ާԧѧ֧ ӧ֧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ֧/ާѧݧ ֧էڧڧ, ܧ ߧ֧էѧ֧ ֧, ӧ֧ӧڧާ ѧ֧ߧߧާ ӧ֧֧ߧߧާ. ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ ҧ֧٧ӧ٧ާ֧٧էߧ ڧէڧ֧ܧ ާ ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ, ӧ٧ѧߧߧ ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧ.

(: Getty/demaerre)

ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧӧ

ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ާ ݧ٧ӧѧ֧ݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ էѧ ѧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧӧ, ֧ҧ֧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ, ѧӧӧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧѧӧܧ.

(: GETTY IMAGES/GORODENKOFF)

٧

٧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧѧߧ-ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧܧڧ ڧߧڧ () ݧاѧ ѧҧڧܧѧާ ܧߧާڧܧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ էէ֧اܧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ݧڧڧܧ ߧ֧ߧڧ էݧ , ѧߧ, ӧ֧է֧ ҧѧ٧ էѧߧߧ ާ֧ѧ ݧڧڧܧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ ڧߧާѧڧ ֧ܧާ֧ߧէѧڧ ӧѧ ֧֧էѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ.

֧ܧ

ڧا ڧӧ֧է֧ߧ ݧڧ ߧ֧ҧݧѧ ӧҧܧ ֧ӧݧ֧ާ ߧѧާ ֧ܧ. ݧ֧ ݧ ֧֧֧ߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ߧ ߧѧ֧ ѧߧڧ ڧߧ֧ߧ֧, ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ܧѧ ӧ֧ܧ էߧ ҧݧѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

ҧ֧ߧէڧߧ

֧ݧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ ӧݧ֧ էէ֧اܧ ާ֧ߧ ֧էڧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧڧ ѧߧѧ էݧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ܧڧӧߧԧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧާ էݧ ҧ֧ߧէڧߧԧ էܧڧ. ڧ ֧ܧ ا ӧݧ٧ӧѧݧڧ ҧڧߧ, ڧ٧ӧէڧ ѧէڧڧߧߧ էܧڧ ݧ֧էڧ ѧߧѧ:

  • (ܧ ?ѧݧާڧ?, ѧߧѧߧѧ ڧ -֧ ާݧ ڧߧէ֧֧ۧ ܧߧ);
  • (ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ ڧ ڧӧӧԧ ѧ ѧ , ӧ֧ߧ ֧ܧڧݧ ?Mae Chaem? اѧܧܧѧէӧ ֧ݧ ?Lampoon?);
  • (ݧ, ܧߧا ӧѧߧڧݧ).
(: Spielworks Media)

էڧӧڧ٧ѧݧߧ ֧ܧ

֧ݧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ֧ԧ ֧ܧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ӧ֧ӧ ӧ֧ܧڧ ѧݧ֧ է֧ݧߧ ѧߧѧ ڧܧ. ֧ާڧާ ֧ էڧا֧ߧڧ ֧ ӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧߧڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧէڧӧڧ٧ѧݧߧާ ѧӧѧާ, ѧܧا ӧ֧ߧڧ ڧҧݧߧ ֧ѧڧ, ߧӧѧߧߧ ߧ ѧӧܧڧ ާ֧اߧ ѧӧѧ.

֧ܧ ҧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧ ݧ֧էڧ ѧߧѧ:

  • ܧڧߧ-ѧ, ֧ߧڧ, ֧ߧ֧ԧѧ (ѧ I II);
  • ѧܧܧ -'ӧѧ (ѧ II).
(: WIPO)

ҧѧ٧

֧ݧ էѧߧߧԧ ֧ܧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧ էէ֧اܧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧڧ ѧߧѧ, ܧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ٧էѧߧڧ֧ ܧާާ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ֧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧, ѧܧڧӧߧ ڧݧ٧ ڧ֧ާ ѧ٧ѧҧѧӧѧ ѧ֧ԧڧ ڧӧݧ֧֧ߧڧ ڧߧӧ֧ڧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ҧѧ٧.

էѧߧߧ ֧ܧ ڧߧݧ ѧڧ 68 , ڧݧ 42 ԧ֧ߧڧߧ 26 ѧܧܧ.

(: Lloyd Tholle)

էѧѧڧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ

ѧߧߧ ֧ܧ ҧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧ ֧ݧ ѧڧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ݧէ֧, ҧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ѧէѧڧӧѧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧ ֧ӧ ߧѧߧ-֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ڧߧާѧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ߧѧߧ ٧ѧէѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.

֧ܧ ҧ ֧ѧݧڧ٧ӧѧ ߧ ڧݧߧ ߧӧ ֧ ѧߧѧ:

  • ѧߧԧݧѧէ֧, ֧ѧ ѧާҧڧ (ѧ I);
  • ڧڧ, ѧߧէ ѧߧ٧ѧߧڧ (ѧ II, ֧ܧڧ).