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ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ

ߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧѧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ () C ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧԧ ѧ٧ާ. ҧ֧ܧѧ ߧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧ, ݧڧ֧ѧߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ڧާӧݧڧܧ, ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧ٧ҧѧا֧ߧڧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާ ܧާާ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ݧ.

ѧӧӧ ڧ֧ާ ٧ӧݧ֧ ѧߧ ҧ֧ܧ , ߧѧڧާ֧, ާ ѧ֧ߧ, ѧӧܧԧ ѧӧ ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ, ٧ӧݧ֧ ݧէ էҧڧӧѧ ڧ٧ߧѧߧڧ ڧݧ ݧѧ ڧߧѧߧӧ ӧ٧ߧѧԧѧاէ֧ߧڧ ٧ ӧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧ ڧݧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ҧ֧֧ڧӧѧ ҧѧݧѧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ֧ ڧܧ ҧݧڧܧ, ڧ֧ާ ҧӧ֧ ٧էѧߧڧ ݧӧڧ էݧ ӧ֧ѧߧڧ ӧ֧ӧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧ.

(IMAGE: GETTY IMAGES/MAXIMKOSTENKO)

ܧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ

٧ߧѧۧ , ܧѧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ ާا֧ ާ ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧֧ߧӧӧѧ ֧ӧڧ ҧݧѧ C ߧ֧ۧߧߧԧ ާѧڧߧߧԧ ֧֧ӧէ ѧ֧ߧ է ڧܧ ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ ާ ..

ڧէ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ

(: iStockphoto.com/professor25)

ӧܧ ѧӧ

ӧܧ ѧӧ C ڧէڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ާڧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާ էݧ ڧѧߧڧ ѧ, ֧էѧӧݧ֧ާ  ѧӧѧ ߧ ٧էѧߧߧ ڧާ ݧڧ֧ѧߧ էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ӧܧ ѧӧ ӧѧӧѧ֧ ڧܧڧ ֧ܧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ: ܧߧڧԧ, ާ٧ܧ, ܧѧڧߧ, ܧݧ ڧݧާ, ܧާ֧ߧ ԧѧާާ, ҧѧ٧ էѧߧߧ, ֧ܧݧѧާ, ܧѧ ֧֧ا.

(: clipart.com)

ѧ֧ߧ

ѧ֧ߧ C ڧܧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ѧӧ ߧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧ. ҧ֧ ާݧ ѧ֧ߧ ߧѧէ֧ݧ֧ ӧ֧ԧ ӧݧѧէ֧ݧ ѧӧ ֧ѧ, ܧѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧ ާا֧ C ާا֧ ݧ C ڧݧ٧ӧѧ էԧڧާ ݧէާ. ҧާ֧ ߧ ѧӧ ѧ֧ߧҧݧѧէѧ֧ݧ ѧܧӧѧ֧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧ ڧߧާѧڧ ڧ٧ҧ֧֧ߧڧ էݧ ڧܧ ҧݧڧܧ ҧݧڧܧ֧ާ ѧ֧ߧߧ էܧާ֧ߧ.

(: wipo/gen a)

ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ

ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧ C ݧڧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ, ڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ӧէڧ ѧ٧ݧڧڧ ާ֧اէ ӧѧѧާ ڧݧ ݧԧѧާ էߧԧ ֧էڧڧ ӧѧ ڧݧ ݧ էԧڧ ֧էڧڧ. ӧѧߧ ٧ߧѧܧ ֧ӧӧѧݧ ֧ է֧ӧߧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ, ܧԧէ ֧ާ֧ݧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ѧӧڧݧ ӧ էڧ ڧݧ ?ܧݧ֧ۧާ? ߧ ӧڧ ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ.

(: mihail stamati)

ާݧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧

ާݧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧֧ C էا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ-֧ڧ֧ܧ ֧֧ߧڧ ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ. ҧѧ٧֧ ާا֧ ҧ ֧ާ֧ߧ, .. ڧާ֧ ާ, ڧݧ ҧ֧, էӧާ֧ߧ ڧާ֧ ѧܧڧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ, ܧѧ ڧߧ, ݧڧߧڧ ڧݧ ӧ֧.

(: iStockphoto.com/mattjeacock)

֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ

֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ߧѧڧާ֧ߧӧѧߧڧ ާ֧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ C ҧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ, ڧݧ٧֧ާ էݧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧڧܧ ӧѧ, ܧ ڧާ֧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ҧݧѧէѧ ӧۧӧѧާ, ֧ѧڧ֧ ڧݧ ѧѧܧ֧ߧާ ҧ֧ߧߧާ, ҧݧӧݧ֧ߧߧާ ֧ڧާ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ ާ֧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ. ѧ ӧ֧ԧ ԧ֧ԧѧڧ֧ܧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ӧܧݧѧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ާ֧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ӧѧ.

(: Getty images/South_agency)

ާާ֧֧ܧڧ ѧۧߧ

ާާ֧֧ܧڧ ѧۧߧ ѧӧ ߧ ܧߧڧէ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ ڧߧާѧڧ. ߧ ާԧ էѧӧѧ ڧݧ ֧֧էѧӧѧ ݧڧ֧ߧ٧ڧ. ֧ѧߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧߧ ݧ֧ߧڧ, ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ڧݧ ѧܧڧ էҧߧ ڧߧާѧڧ էԧڧާ ݧڧѧާ ҧ, ڧӧ֧ѧڧ ֧ߧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧ ѧܧڧܧ, ڧѧ֧ ߧ֧էҧӧ֧ߧ ѧܧڧܧ ߧѧ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧ ߧ ܧާާ֧֧ܧ ѧۧߧ.

ҧ֧ߧڧ C ߧ է ֧ڧѧݧߧ ߧѧӧܧ

ا֧ߧڧ ԧէ ԧѧߧڧ٧֧ ѧܧڧܧާ, ֧ާڧߧѧ ֧ҧߧ ܧ ֧ߧ֧ӧ էԧڧ ԧէѧ ާڧ.

֧֧ߧڧ ԧէ ާ ӧէڧ ӧ֧٧էߧ ֧ާڧߧѧ, ܧ ٧ӧݧ ѧܧѧ٧ѧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ է֧ݧӧ ܧԧ, ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ, ڧѧ ڧ٧ҧ֧ѧ֧ݧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ڧ֧ާ ԧݧҧѧݧߧ ݧ ҧݧѧ .

ҧѧ٧ ܧѧէ֧ާڧ ӧէ ܧ էڧѧߧڧߧߧԧ ߧԧ ҧ֧ߧڧ. ѧܧڧ ҧ ߧ ҧ ӧ֧ߧ ӧѧڧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ ڧݧ ܧ ӧѧڧ ڧߧ֧֧, ӧѧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ҧԧѧ ӧҧ ҧڧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ܧ , ާ ܧ ӧ ާا֧ ڧҧ֧ ߧӧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ.

֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ѧܧا ٧ߧѧܧާڧ ڧߧ֧ѧܧڧӧߧ ݧ֧ܧߧߧ ҧѧڧ ާէݧ֧ IP PANORAMA.

ӧ֧ߧڧ ڧߧާڧӧѧߧߧ ҧݧѧ

(Image: WIPO)

֧اէߧѧէߧ է֧ߧ

ا֧ԧէߧ 26 ѧ֧ݧ ާ ާ֧ѧ֧ ֧اէߧѧէߧ է֧ߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧѧݧߧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ݧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ڧܧ էڧܧڧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ էݧ ֧ߧڧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧ ӧ֧ӧ. ٧ߧѧۧ , ܧѧ ڧߧ ѧڧ ѧҧ.

(: WIPO)

ߧѧ

ާڧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ էڧܧ ݧڧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ٧ߧѧܧާڧ ֧ܧѧާ, ѧާ ڧߧ֧ӧ, ӧ֧ߧߧާ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ڧ֧ާ , ڧߧߧӧѧڧߧߧ է֧֧ݧߧ ӧ֧ܧڧ էڧا֧ߧڧ ާڧ (ҧݧڧܧ֧ ߧ ѧߧԧݧڧۧܧ, ڧѧߧܧ ѧߧ٧ܧ ٧ܧѧ).

(: iStockphoto.com/timsa)

ߧާѧڧߧߧ-ӧ֧ڧ֧ݧܧѧ ѧҧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ

֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ҧ֧ݧѧߧ ֧ էݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ڧߧާѧڧߧߧ-ӧ֧ڧ֧ݧܧ ѧҧ, ܧ ާԧ ӧ֧էާӧѧ ԧѧߧѧ ݧѧߧڧӧѧ ӧէڧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧާѧߧڧ, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ӧ֧֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧߧڧ .

(: Conceptum)

ѧԧѧէ

֧ާڧѧݧߧѧ ԧѧާާ ڧ٧ӧѧߧ ާ ԧէѧӧѧ-ݧ֧ߧѧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ ܧݧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧ ӧ֧ӧ. ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ ܧѧߧէڧէѧ ߧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ ߧѧԧѧ ֧էѧӧݧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧާ ӧ֧էާӧѧާ .

...

(IMAGE: GETTY IMAGES/MF3D)

ܧӧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧ֧ݧݧ֧ܧ

ߧާѧڧ , ܧѧ , ѧߧѧݧڧ ҧݧڧ ާѧڧӧ էѧߧߧ ߧӧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ҧݧܧ֧ۧ, ާԧ ާ ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ ҧݧ֧ ݧاߧ ٧ѧէѧ, ڧ ֧֧ ӧ֧էާӧѧާ .

(IMAGE: STOCKPHOTOASTUR (ISTOCK/GETTY IMAGES PLUS)

֧ߧէ֧ߧ ѧӧ֧ߧӧ

اڧߧ ا֧ߧڧߧ ѧӧߧ ֧֧ߧ ӧݧ ӧ֧ܧڧާ ݧڧߧާ ߧӧѧѧާ. ֧ ߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ا֧ߧڧߧ ѧ ݧѧҧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧߧާ ӧ ާߧԧڧ ҧݧѧ է֧֧ݧߧ. ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ڧߧާѧڧ , ܧѧ ѧҧѧ֧ ߧѧ ֧֧ߧڧ֧ էѧߧߧ ҧݧ֧ާ.

է֧ҧߧ ԧѧߧ

ߧާѧڧ , ܧѧ ާԧѧ֧ է֧ҧߧ ԧѧߧѧ ڧܧѧ ӧ֧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧӧӧ ӧ, ߧ֧֧էܧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧڧ ֧٧ݧѧ ҧݧѧ ݧӧڧ ֧ާڧ֧ݧߧ ާ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ѧݧڧ.

(IMAGE: GETTY IMAGES/MAXIMKOSTENKO)

ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧

ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧѧߧ-ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧܧڧ ֧اէ֧ߧڧ ӧݧ ѧҧڧܧѧާ ܧߧާڧܧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ. ѧܧѧا֧ ӧѧ, ߧѧܧݧܧ ӧѧاߧ ݧ ڧ ѧҧ ڧԧѧ ݧڧڧܧ ҧݧѧ ֧֧էѧ ٧ߧѧߧڧ.